18 Sep The week in foreign policy   We’re back with the week in foreign policy – exploring what’s happening away from the front pages, and key developments in
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Diplomats from the British Embassy are off to an important meeting in Vienna. The Ringstrasse, as so often, is gridlocked. No problem for our diplomats, who hop on an embassy
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  For a generation accustomed to long periods of screen time, Generation Z (Gen Z)’s digital consumption is of particular relevance to public diplomacy. Consistent online engagement allows for Gen
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In the short time since the Prime Minister announced the creation of a new Foreign, Commonwealth and Development Office, my former colleagues in both the FCO and DFID have been
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Skip to content Leigh TurnerAmbassador to Austria and UK Permanent Representative to the United Nations and other International Organisations in Vienna 7th September 2020 Vienna, AustriaHow Austria has – and
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Digital Diplomacy

Public Diplomacy

  • Walter Douglas -“Roundtable Discussion on US Foreign Policy and the Indo-Pacific Strategy”

    Walter Douglas -“Roundtable Discussion on US Foreign Policy and the Indo-Pacific Strategy”

    • 29th January 2019

    ceas.sas.upenn.edu
    Wednesday, January 30, 2019 – 10:00amCSCC Conference Room, Perelman 418, 133 S. 36th Street Walter Douglas is the Deputy Assistant Secretary of State for Public Affairs and Public Diplomacy [JB emphasis] in the Bureau of East Asian and Pacific Affairs at the U.S. Department of State in Washington, D.C.Mr. Douglas was previously the Deputy Assistant Secretary of State for International Media Engagement in the Bureau of Public Affairs. Before that, he served overseas as minister counselor for public affairs at the U.S. embassy in New Delhi. Earlier, Mr. Douglas was a senior visiting fellow at the Center for Strategic and International Studies (CSIS) in Washington, D.C. His report “Engaging the Muslim World: Public Diplomacy after 9/11 in the Arab Middle East, Afghanistan, and Pakistan” was published in 2013.Until October, 2011, Mr. Douglas was based in Islamabad as the director of communications for the U.S. mission in Pakistan. Before that, he served in Washington as ..

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  • For SNC, Saudi writedown is the cost of Ottawa’s public diplomacy

    For SNC, Saudi writedown is the cost of Ottawa’s public diplomacy

    • 29th January 2019

    Andrew Illis, The Globe and Mail (Ontario Edition), 29 Jan 2019
    image fromExcerpt:
    For most Canadians, television footage of 18-year-old Saudi asylum seeker Rahaf Mohammed walking through Toronto’s airport on the arm of Foreign Affairs Minister Chrystia Freeland was a feel-good moment.
    For Neil Bruce, chief executive officer of SNC-Lavalin Group Inc., the political photo opportunity was a symbol of what has become a multibillion-dollar headache at the country’s largest engineering firm. Montreal-based SNC now faces the prospect of a sweeping restructuring, partly because of decisions made in Ottawa. One of those decisions was to escalate a diplomatic row with Saudi Arabia, the home of 9,000 SNC employees.
    SNC took a $1.24- billion write down Monday on its oil and gas business, which accounts for approximately one-third of the company’s revenue. The hit reflects a deteriorating relationship between the Canadian government and the royal family that runs the kingdom. SNC has been doing bu..

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  • SCO Public Diplomacy Institute opens in Uzbekistan

    SCO Public Diplomacy Institute opens in Uzbekistan

    • 29th January 2019

    eng.belta.by
    Photo courtesy of Belarus' embassy in Uzbekistan MINSK, 29 January (BelTA)
    A Public Diplomacy [JB emphasis] Institute of the Shanghai Cooperation Organization (SCO) was inaugurated in Uzbekistan, BelTA learned from the embassy of Belarus in Tashkent.
    Belarus' Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary to Uzbekistan Leonid Marinich took part in a press briefing to mark the launch of the institute. He described promising fields of cooperation with Uzbekistan in the framework of the SCO. In particular, the diplomat suggested establishing cooperation between the Belarusian agricultural machinery companies and Uzbek agrarian enterprises with a view to strengthen the Shanghai Cooperation Organization food security.
    The ambassador also invited companies from Uzbekistan to take part in Belagro, a large international agricultural expo held annually in Belarus.
    Belarus and Uzbekistan are active participants of the Chinese Belt and Road initiative. In this regard, Leo..

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  • Public Schedule: January 29, 2019 – Department of State

    Public Schedule: January 29, 2019 – Department of State

    • 29th January 2019

    state.gov
    ***THE DAILY PUBLIC SCHEDULE IS SUBJECT TO CHANGE***DEPARTMENT OF STATE
    PUBLIC SCHEDULE
    JANUARY 29, 2019Royce image fromExcerpt:ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR EDUCATIONAL AND CULTURAL AFFAIRS MARIE ROYCE2:00 p.m. Assistant Secretary Royce chairs the U.S.-Algeria Education and Culture Working Group, at the Department of State.
    (CLOSED PRESS COVERAGE)

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The Israeli Foreign Ministry used the lockdown to tweet beyond its traditional audience, reaching millennials and Gen Z Twitter users. “The #CoronaVirus had a dramatic impact on the role of #DigitalDiplomacy, which is now more important than ever before,” the Foreign Ministry tweeted. Without physical spaces, many use #socialmedia to “socialize” and we’re taking advantage of that with engaging & relevant content that resonates with global audiences.”

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Diplo Portal Belgrade

The post Hospital for endocrine surgery MEDICENTAR in Belgrade: Thyroid surgery – WITHOUT PAIN AND SCARS appeared first on Diplomatic portal. [...]

18 Sep The week in foreign policy We’re back with the week in foreign policy – exploring what’s happening away from the front pages, and key developments in global affairs that have caught our eye. The foreign policy headlines have been dominated this week by news that, with the support of America, the UAE and Bahrain have signed agreements fully normalising their relationships with Israel. Whilst the move has been celebrated by some as a historic and extraordinary triumph, The New York Times’ Editorial Board have argued that, whilst this is “on the face of it, a good and beneficial… [...]

The May Month of Mathematics event of the Centre for the Promotion of Science, which began in May through a virtual programme due to pandemic circumstances, continues in September with an exhibition on women in mathematics and content that imaginatively brings mathematics closer to all generations. The mathematical adventure that started this May in a virtual format continues at the beginning of autumn in the open space. On Monday, September 21, at 7 pm, M3 begins on the Summer Stage of the Belgrade Fortress with the performance “The point is what has no parts”, which explores mathematical ideas through dance.… [...]

Otvaranje izložbe: 01.10.2020. u 19:30 časova Otvaranje će se održati ispred Goethe-Instituta. U galeriji je dozvoljeno istovremeno prisustvo maksimalno 3 osobe. Molimo Vas da držite odstojanje od drugih posetilaca i nosite maske. Psihodramsko vođenje: 22.10.2020. u 19:30 časova Vodi: Gordana Marić Lalović Prijava: [email protected] Psihodramsko vođenje održaće se putem Zoom-a. Umetnički kafe: 19.11.2020. u 20:00 časova Onlajn-prenos putem Facebook-a i Instagram-a Broj lično prisutnih posetilaca Umetničkog kafea ograničen je na 10. Prisustvo je moguće samo po pozivu. Fotografski ciklus „Stern-Berg“ donosi strukture evokativnih slojeva sa brdske lokacije Astronomske opservatorije u Beogradu, podignute sredinom dvadesetih godina dvadesetog veka. Takvo mesto predstavlja… [...]

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  • thediplomat
  • politik-kommunikation.de
- christian

President von der Leyen pledged that the Commission will drive a sustainable and transformational recovery from the COVID-19 pandemic that will give the EU a global platform that will give the EU a global platform to lead economically, environmentally and geopolitically. According to the Commission’s President, Next Generation EU represents a ‘once in a lifetime’ opportunity to make change happen by design and to enable the EU to become green, digital and more resilient.

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- christian

There is an ongoing debate over the definition of a 'regional airport'. Some attempts to define a regional airport link the notion of 'regional' to the fact that the catchment area of an airport is located outside a capital city. There is no definition of a regional airport at EU level to date.

An airport should be considered regional if it

1. Primarily serves short and medium range routes and

2. Primarily serves point-to-point destinations

Austria (6)

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- christian
The global climate crisis could see more than a billion people displaced from their homes in the next 30 years. The Ecological Threat Register, conducted by the Sydney-based Institute for Economics and Peace (IEP), projected that as many as 1.2 billion people around the world could be displaced by 2050. No country will be able to escape the impact of the climate crisis -- but the world's poorest and most vulnerable populations will be hardest hit.Share to:          
- Taku Suzuki
A look back at the wave of hunger strikes among detained asylum seekers in Japan last year.
- Valbona Zeneli and Joseph Vann
Going all-in on the transatlantic economy is the only serious option for Western democracies seeking to counter China.
- Bolor Lkhaajav
In the last decade, Mongolia showed progress in e-governance, but there’s more yet to do.
- politik&kommunikation
Instagram ist den politischen Kinderschuhen entwachsen. Nutzten zur Bundestagswahl 2017 noch nicht einmal die Hälfte der später gewählten Parlamentarier die Plattform, liegt die Nutzungsdichte der heute auf Instagram vertretenen MdBs schätzungsweise bei drei von vier. Ein ähnliches Bild zeigt sich auf Landesebene. Auch zahlreiche Kommunalpolitiker…
- politik&kommunikation
Pietro Zollino (53) ist seit dem 1. September Leiter Unternehmenskommunikation und Public Affairs bei MAN Truck & Bus in München. Zuletzt war er Executive Vice President Communications bei der Volkswagen Group of America, wo er die Gesamtkommunikation für Volkswagen in den USA verantwortete. Zollino folgt auf Stefan Klatt, der den Bereich…
- politik&kommunikation
Hamburgs FDP-Chefin Katja Suding (44) hat am 5. September auf einem Parteitag ihres Landesverbands angekündigt, dass sie alle ihre politischen Ämter aufgeben will. Demnach werde sie weder 2021 zur Bundestagswahl antreten noch erneut für den Landesvorsitz kandidieren. Auch als stellvertretende FDP-Bundesvorsitzende stehe sie nicht erneut zur…

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Kosovo: What Everyone Really Needs To Know

3. Southern Serbia’s province is called Kosovo

Basic Western misconceptions on the Kosovo issue and their corrections 3. Southern Serbia’s province is called Kosovo Wrong. It is Kosovo and Metohia, abbreviated KosMet. Kosovo itself is an abbreviation of Kosovo Polje, what in the Serbian language means Blackbird Field (in German Amselfeld). Metohia is a corrupted Greek name for Metohi, meaning dependency to

27. Serbian minority in KosMet had decreased from around 30% in 1946 to 10% in 1991, as a result of higher Albanian birth rates and Serbian emigration to Central and North Serbia

Basic Western misconceptions on the Kosovo issue and their corrections 27. Serbian minority in KosMet had decreased from around 30% in 1946 to 10% in 1991, as a result of higher Albanian birth rates and Serbian emigration to Central and North Serbia Wrong. The last reliable population census in KosMet is of 1961 as censuses

29. The Kosovo War started in 1998 by ethnic Albanian revolt for the reason that Serbia oppressed KosMet’s Albanian rights as did not recognize elections in 1998

Basic Western misconceptions on the Kosovo issue and their corrections 29. The Kosovo War started in 1998 by ethnic Albanian revolt for the reason that Serbia oppressed KosMet’s Albanian rights as did not recognize elections in 1998 Wrong. The war started at the very beginning of 1998 as a consequence of Albanian-led terrorism actions against

32. The best and most democratic solution of the Kosovo knot is to recognize Kosovo’s self-proclaimed independence from Serbia

Basic Western misconceptions on the Kosovo issue and their corrections

17. The rationale for American interference into Albanian issue is a humanitarian concern for human rights in the area

test

Catalog of Destroyed and Desecrated Churches in Kosovo ( VIDEO )

Catalog of Destroyed and Desecrated Churches in Kosovo Contents: A)NAME AND LOCATION OF THE CHURCH; B) EIGHT PHASES OF DESTRUCTION ( I Shell-shocked monuments; II Looting of movable treasure; III Desecrating shrines; IV Burning of shrines and adjacent buildings; V First mining; VI Mining of the left-overs; VII Removing of the remains; VIII Terrain clearance

10. There is no such an entity as a Greater Albania

Basic Western misconceptions on the Kosovo issue and their corrections 10. There is no such an entity as a Greater Albania Wrong. Although they are not publicized, the maps of that projected unified national state of all Albanians do appear occasionally in the Western press, either explicitly, or as the region with a predominant Albanian

14. The „blood feud“ has been extinguished among Albanians

Basic Western misconceptions on the Kosovo issue and their corrections 14. The „blood feud“ has been extinguished among Albanians Wrong. It was much reduced during the communist regimes in the area (Albania, Montenegro, KosMet), but has been revived after the “democratic governments” have taken power in Albania. It is widely spread at KosMet, despite the

11. Albanians are autochthonous Balkan population descending from the ancient Balkan Illyrian tribes

Basic Western misconceptions on the Kosovo issue and their corrections 11. Albanians are autochthonous Balkan population descending from the ancient Balkan Illyrian tribes Wrong. They appear in the mid-11th century in the Balkan history and their origin appears uncertain (most probably they came to the Balkans from the Caucasus Albania via Sicily, according to one

22. Kosovo is the site where the Albanian national hero Skanderbeg held back the armies of the Ottoman Empire in the 15th century

Basic Western misconceptions on the Kosovo issue and their corrections 22. Kosovo is the site where the Albanian national hero Skanderbeg held back the armies of the Ottoman Empire in the 15th century Wrong. Skanderbeg (George Kastriot Skanderbeg) was not of the Albanian origin but of the Serb. His family coat of arms, that is

7. The aim of Shqipetars is an independent Kosova

Basic Western misconceptions on the Kosovo issue and their corrections 7. The aim of Shqipetars is an independent Kosova Wrong. It is a common goal of all Albanians to live in a single (unified) national state of (a Greater) Albania. The political program of a Greater Albania is designed in 1878 by the Albanian First

8. The expulsion of Serbs from KosMet after June 1999 is an act of retaliation

Basic Western misconceptions on the Kosovo issue and their corrections 8. The expulsion of Serbs from KosMet after June 1999 is an act of retaliation Wrong. The process of Shqipetar’s committed ethnic cleansing of KosMet goes on for the last century and refers to all non-Shqipetars (Roma, Turks, Croats, etc). It is a clear case

6. KosMet is an undeveloped, poor region

Basic Western misconceptions on the Kosovo issue and their corrections 6. KosMet is an undeveloped, poor region Wrong. It is the most fertile land in Serbia (apart from Vojvodina). The average DNP per family is the same as in the rest of Serbia. It is low only if counted per capita since the Shqipetars’ family

Humanitarian Intervention: Advantages and Disadvantages in East Timor and Kosovo

NATO’s intervention in Kosovo in 1999 exemplifies many of these disadvantages, including the risks of causing civilian casualties, exacerbating ethnic tensions and increasing violence

31. After the war, KosMet was occupied by the international community, sanctioned by the UN (KFOR) for the fundamental purpose to prevent violence between the Albanian majority and the Serb minority

Basic Western misconceptions on the Kosovo issue and their corrections 31. After the war, KosMet was occupied by the international community, sanctioned by the UN (KFOR) for the fundamental purpose to prevent violence between the Albanian majority and the Serb minority       Wrong. KosMet was, in fact, occupied after the Kosovo War not by “international

20. It is the duty of the international community to help the Albanian issue settled down

Basic Western misconceptions on the Kosovo issue and their corrections 20. It is the duty of the international community to help the Albanian issue settled down Wrong. The international community does not comprehend the nature of the problem, for good reason, since it is not a political one, but a clash between a Middle Age

18. It was Slobodan Miloshevic who was to blame for the NATO’s intervention in 1999

Basic Western misconceptions on the Kosovo issue and their corrections 18. It was Slobodan Miloshevic who was to blame for the NATO’s intervention in 1999 Wrong. It was a responsibility of the government of Serbia to protect the interest of the state of Yugoslavia (the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia – Serbia and Montenegro), in face

Solution

Basic Western misconceptions on the Kosovo issue and their corrections Solution Finally, the optimal solution for the Kosovo status is a “normal” autonomy within Serbia according to the international standards of protection of the rights of ethnic minorities but without any political-administrative prerogatives as it was the case in the SFRY from 1974 to 1989.

23. Kosovo was occupied by Serbia before WWI

Basic Western misconceptions on the Kosovo issue and their corrections 23. Kosovo was occupied by Serbia before WWI Wrong. This is the biggest falsification of historical truth followed by a dirty political propaganda by the West. Serbia simply liberated her own land during the First Balkan War in 1912−1913 that was occupied by the Ottoman

12. The rebellion and protests in South-East Serbia at Preshevo valley is due to Belgrade repression on the Shqipetar population there

Basic Western misconceptions on the Kosovo issue and their corrections 12. The rebellion and protests in South-East Serbia at Preshevo valley is due to Belgrade repression on the Shqipetar population there Wrong. This region was not included into the KosMet (autonomous) region after the WWII, for the simple reason that Shqipetars were a tiny minority

5. Shqipetars are an autochthonous population at KosMet

Basic Western misconceptions on the Kosovo issue and their corrections 5. Shqipetars are an autochthonous population at KosMet Wrong. In the Middle Ages, KosMet was the central part of Serbian state, culture, and civilization. Shqipetars were a tiny minority (about 2%, according to the Ottoman census in 1455), nomadic herdsmen mostly. They came to KosMet

9. KosMet used to be economically supported by the rest of former Yugoslavia

Basic Western misconceptions on the Kosovo issue and their corrections 9. KosMet used to be economically supported by the rest of former Yugoslavia Wrong. Since Serbia’s contribution to the Yugoslav Federal Fund for the undeveloped regions matched exactly the amount donated by the Fund to KosMet, it was, in fact, Serbia which helped KosMet to

24. Kosovo’s Albanians were repressed after WWII under the Serb-dominated secret police

Basic Western misconceptions on the Kosovo issue and their corrections 24. Kosovo’s Albanians were repressed after WWII under the Serb-dominated secret police Wrong. After the WWII the Yugoslav authorities forbade by the law to all expelled Kosovo’s Serbs (100.000) during the WWII, when KosMet was a part of Mussolini/Hitler’s established Greater Albania, to return back

Kosovo under Nazi Germany: Nazi-Created Albanian Security Forces in Kosovo during World War II

Albanian popular support for fascism and Nazism was widespread. Nazi Germany exploited the Greater Albania nationalist ideology to gain popular support for the Nazi German occupation of Kosovo.

Kosovo: What Everyone Really Needs To Know

Kosovo is today one of the most disputed territories in Europe and a real Balkan powder keg which can explode again at any time. It is a province within the Republic of Serbia, recognized as such by both Serbia’s constitution and the Resolution 1244 by the Security Council of the United Nations (the UNSC Resolution

4. Ethnic Albanians at KosMet (Shqipetars in the following, as they call themselves) constitute a majority of 90% out of total KosMet’s population

Basic Western misconceptions on the Kosovo issue and their corrections 4. Ethnic Albanians at KosMet (Shqipetars in the following, as they call themselves) constitute a majority of 90% out of total KosMet’s population Wrong. In the last reliable census carried out at KosMet in 1961, Shqipetars constituted 67% of the overall population, with (predominantly) Serbs

13. Shqipetars used to be friendly with their neighbors. They were protecting Orthodox monasteries there

Basic Western misconceptions on the Kosovo issue and their corrections 13. Shqipetars used to be friendly with their neighbors. They were protecting Orthodox monasteries there Wrong. After the World War II, more than 250.000 non-Shqipetars moved from KosMet due to the “demographic pressure”, not to mention violence. After NATO’s “humanitarian intervention” in 1999 at least

19. Former Yugoslavia disintegrated because of Slobodan Miloshevic

Basic Western misconceptions on the Kosovo issue and their corrections 19. Former Yugoslavia disintegrated because of Slobodan Miloshevic Wrong. His political (sic) manners only provided an excuse to Slovenia and Croatia for leaving Yugoslavia. The real rationale for this understandable decision was to leave the state that was burdened with the time bomb called KosMet,

25. Kosovo’s prospects improved with the dismissal of the hardline Minister of the Interior of Yugoslav federal government in 1966, Aleksandar M. Rankovic, and its distinctiveness was recognized in the new constitution in 1974, which gave Kosovo an autonomous status

Basic Western misconceptions on the Kosovo issue and their corrections 25. Kosovo’s prospects improved with the dismissal of the hardline Minister of the Interior of Yugoslav federal government in 1966, Aleksandar M. Rankovic, and its distinctiveness was recognized in the new constitution in 1974, which gave Kosovo an autonomous status Wrong. By dismissal of Aleksandar

16. Americans are siding with Albanians in the current Balkan affairs

Basic Western misconceptions on the Kosovo issue and their corrections 16. Americans are siding with Albanians in the current Balkan affairs Wrong. They are directly involved, at all levels, from financing, organizing, training, arms supplying, diplomatic supports, etc. Training camps at North Albania, KosMet, and Macedonia are lead by American instructors, who are engaged even

2. The issue is a fight of Albanians for their rights

Basic Western misconceptions on the Kosovo issue and their corrections 2. The issue is a fight of Albanians for their rights Wrong: The crux of the matter lies at the biological level. The real rationale is a demographic explosion which is going on within the Albanian population for a century or so (rate of growth

“Christian Heritage of Kosovo and Metohija”

Thanks to the love of the Serbian Bishop Maxim from California we have a special opportunity to read the valuable book, “Christian Heritage of Kosovo and Metohija,” ONLINE. Through facts & documents we struggle against attempts of stealing of our heritage. https://online.flipbuilder.com/szto/mnva/mobile/index.html    

Au Kosovo, les Serbes font de la résistance GRAND REPORTAGE

Vingt ans après la guerre du Kosovo, 100.000 Serbes orthodoxes vivent toujours dans l’ex-province yougoslave, autoproclamée indépendante en 2008.

Last week: A desecrated cemetery; This week: „Kosovo is an example of interfaith tolerance and coexistence“

„In terms of interfaith tolerance and coexistence, Kosovo sets an example in the region and beyond,“ the Kosovo Foreign Minister, Behgjet Pacolli said at a ministerial conference on religious freedom held in Washington. While Pacolli claims that the various religious communities in Kosovo „live together in harmony,“ the Kosovo Police still fail to find those

1. Kosovo issue is a conflict between ethnic Albanians and ethnic Serbs over the territory

Basic Western misconceptions on the Kosovo issue and their corrections 1. Kosovo issue is a conflict between ethnic Albanians and ethnic Serbs over the territory Wrong: It is a part of the conflict between Balkan Albanians and the surrounding populations, in Montenegro, Serbia, Macedonia, and Greece (for instance, clashes between Albanians and Macedonians in Macedonia

26. Soon after the death of Josip Broz Tito (May 1980), Kosovo’s Albanian population staged a series of public protests against continued discrimination

Basic Western misconceptions on the Kosovo issue and their corrections 26. Soon after the death of Josip Broz Tito (May 1980), Kosovo’s Albanian population staged a series   of public protests against continued discrimination Wrong. After the death of a Yugoslav dictator Josip Broz Tito (1982−1980), who was of the Slovenian-Croatian origin and who was supporting

15. The KFOR holds control at KosMet and helps the region reestablish the order and law

Basic Western misconceptions on the Kosovo issue and their corrections 15. The KFOR holds control at KosMet and helps the region reestablish the order and law Wrong. It has no control whatsoever over the local population, in particular the irregulars of the KLA, turned into mock police forces. The whole region, y compris North Albania

28. The KosMet’s autonomy was cancelled by S. Milošević in 1989 and, therefore, Albanians lost their minority rights

Basic Western misconceptions on the Kosovo issue and their corrections 28. The KosMet’s autonomy was cancelled by S. Milošević in 1989 and, therefore, Albanians lost their minority rights         Wrong. The autonomy was not canceled as it was just reduced from the political independence to the national-cultural rights in order to prevent further separation of

21. Kosovo is a disputed territory claimed by Serbia and Albania, which both nationalities regard as central to their cultural identity

Basic Western misconceptions on the Kosovo issue and their corrections 21. Kosovo is a disputed territory claimed by Serbia and Albania, which both nationalities regard as central to their cultural identity Wrong. Kosovo is not disputed land between Serbia and Albania as Albania’s officials never officially claimed this province to be included into Albania. It

30. During the 1998−1999 Kosovo War, Serb army and police units did not fight only the rebellious Kosovo Liberation Army (KLA), but also carried out programmes of ethnic cleansing and, therefore, the US-led NATO was obliged first to act and then to continue military actions against Serbia and Montenegro for the sake to prevent human (Albanian) catastrophe

Basic Western misconceptions on the Kosovo issue and their corrections 30. During the 1998−1999 Kosovo War, Serb army and police units did not fight only the rebellious Kosovo Liberation Army (KLA), but also carried out programmes of ethnic cleansing and, therefore, the US-led NATO was obliged first to act and then to continue military actions

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