Gaia Pianigiani, The New York Times, Feb 27, 2019; original article contains links; see also (1)
Image from article, with caption: Richard Gardner in 1977, the year he was appointed ambassador to Italy. He toggled between diplomatic assignments and a career as a Columbia University law professor.
Richard Gardner, who in the late 1970s served as the American ambassador to Italy in a period of political violence there and concern in Washington about the Italian Communist Party’s growing strength, died on Feb. 16 at his home in Manhattan. He was 91.
His daughter, Nina Gardner, said the cause was congestive heart failure.
While his profile was probably highest when he was posted to Rome, Dr. Gardner was also an adviser to Democratic presidential candidates and a distinguished law professor at Columbia University.
One candidate he advised was Jimmy Carter, who on becoming president in 1977 appointed Dr. Gardner to the Rome post.
Until then, American officials had long supported Italy’s Chr..
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Shehab Al Makahleh, Jordan Times , Feb 21,2019
In a hyper-connected world, public diplomacy [JB emphasis] is very significant for any country and is in line with soft power to win hearts and minds. Thus, public diplomacy is defined as a thoughtful communication endeavour to make use of soft power, by providing information deemed by foreign audience as positive. Public diplomacy is sometimes defined succinctly to refer to reaching out to global publics directly via micro approaches, including NGOs, such as the Peace Corps, and macro levels by relying on mass media.
Over the past decade, there has been a worldwide surge of public diplomacy and its use as one of the most influential and sustainable soft weapons. Governments have decided to appoint departments and officials to devise strategies to yield the best results. The term has become a revolution in the world of contemporary diplomacy alongside the traditional, cultural, virtual diplomacy and so forth.
The concept of publ..